Gulu is part of the former Acholi District which existed at Independence. IN 1974, Acholi District was divided into East Acholi and West Acholi which became Kitgum and Gulu district respectively in 1980.
It borders the districts of Adjumani in the north, Arua and Nebbi in the West, Pader I the East, Apac and Masindi in the south and the Republic of Sudan in the north. It is the western part of the former Acholi District.
The district has over 468,407 people, 240,226 are female and 228,181 are Male.
Main Languages; Luo
Agriculture with main emphasis on food crops such as millet, cassava, cow Pease, potatoes, beans, Simsim and sunflower. Cash crops include cotton, Tobacco, Sugar cane and Simsim. Vegetables are Cabbage. There is fishing on western end of the district in the River Nile.
Banks; Stanbic Bank, Centenary Bank, bank of Uganda (Regional Currency Centre).
The district has a total of 220 primary schools with 217 government, 3private and 8 community schools. For secondary schools, the district has over 25 schools, 14 are government, 8 private and 3 community.
There 1 technical institution, 2 teacher training colleges and 1 National Teachers Colleges-Unyama NTC, 1 University-Gulu University of Agriculture and Environmental Science.
The district has 26 Government dispensaries (II), 14 health centres (III) at county, 3 health centres (IV) at sub-district with 2 hospitals. More so, it has 2 private/NGO dispensaries, 25 clinic, 3 health centres (III) and 1 hospital.
Regional Referral Hospital- Gulu Hospital with 250 beds. Government District Hospital- Lacor Hospital with 457 beds and Anaka Hospital with 104 beds. Private hospital-Gulu independent hospital with 80 beds.
The only Tarmac road links Gulu to Masindi through Apac. The rest of the roads in the district are Murram and feeder roads. The district is also connected to the rail network which crosses the middle of the road from Lira to Pakwach I Nebbi District. Gulu had an airfield which facilitates air transport. Scheduled and chartered flights are available. It is 1.9 Km from Gulu town.
There is Murchison Falls National Park which is the largest part in Uganda covering an area of 4,000 sq Km. It extends to Gulu district. Activities include Launch trips, top of the falls, game viewing, Forest walks in Rabongo Forest and Spot fishing.