The district came into existence in 1997. It consists of 2 counties of Mawogola and Lwemiyaga which were formerly part of Masaka District. The main language us Luganda and Runyankore.
It borders Mpigi and Mubende in the north, Mbarara in the West, Rakai and Masaka in the south and Masaka in the East.
It has a population of 184,178 people, 91,949 of which are females and 92,229 males.
Agriculture is the main economic activity in Sembabule district. The main food crops grown include; Cassava, Sweet potatoes, Maize, Millet, G-nuts, Pease, Soya beans, Bananas and Yams. The cash crops includes; Cotton and Coffee. There is cattle herding and ranching. More so, fishing is also practiced in Sembabule district.
The district has a total of 171 primary schools with 129 government, 25 private and 17 community schools. For secondary schools, the district has over 19 schools, 5 are government, 10 private and 2 community.
The district has 10 Government dispensaries (II), 3 health centres(III), 2health centres(IV) and I hospital. More so, No private/NGO dispensary, 5 clinics and 3 private hospitals and no hospital. Major health problems are referred to hospitals in Masaka which include Masaka, Kitovu and Villa Maria Hospitals.
There is Bigo works in the Bwera region which appears to have been a significant late Iron Age settlement. Excavations at the sight have yielded iron blades (most probably used for harvesting grain), pottery with simple decorations, cattle dung and post-0holes for fencing. During colonial times, the site was called Bigo Bya Mugyenyi.
The district receives low rainfall and has long dry spells. This greatly affects agriculture, but cattle keeping is not seriously affected. Some cattle are reared on ranches. This forms the pillar of Sembabule’s economy since cattle are in demand foe meat in Masaka, Rakai and Kampala. The biggest barrier to the development of the district is the transport net work.